Common Asthma Triggers 

The change in seasons is a great time for clinicians and Vermonters with asthma to focus on identifying and reducing allergens and irritants that can lead to asthma attacks. Irritating triggers are unique to each person and can include tobacco smoke and e-cigarette emissions, outdoor and indoor air pollution like diesel exhaust, fireplace smoke, dust mites and pet dander.

The prevalence of asthma in Vermont and other New England states is among the highest in the nation. In 2022,13% of Vermont adults had asthma, giving Vermont the fifth-highest asthma rate in the U.S. for adults. Vermont children have an asthma prevalence rate of 8%, among whom 61% have uncontrolled asthma and are at greater risk of missed school and asthma-related emergencies. A child’s asthma may be worsened by exposure to secondhand smoke from family and friends’ smoking or vaping - a big problem in Vermont. Other common causes of asthma flare-ups for both children and adults include cold air, exercise, dust, strong emotions, flu and viral infections. 

Learn more about the connection between COVID-19 and asthma

If you have asthma, small changes at home can mean big differences in you and your family’s breathing. A good first step is to identify and reduce your asthma triggers. An asthma “trigger” is something —like an allergy or chemical—that irritates your airways and flares your symptoms. Common triggers include:

  • Viral infections, such as the flu and COVID-19. People with moderate to severe asthma may be at higher risk of getting very sick from COVID-19. For the most up-to-date information on the connection between asthma and COVID-19, visit the CDC's page on asthma and COVID-19.
  • Smoke
  • Cold air
  • Exercise
  • Dust
  • Pet dander
  • Strong emotions

Learn more about how to tackle your triggers


Secondhand Smoke and Asthma 

Smoke of all types, especially tobacco smoke, is a common trigger for people with asthma, especially children and babies.

Breathing just a small amount of secondhand smoke that contains 1,000s of chemicals can cause a severe asthma attack. Smoke and vape emissions can also cause asthma. There is no safe exposure to secondhand smoke or e-cigarette emissions.

Tips for creating smoke-free environments around people with asthma.

1. Consider quitting smoking or vaping.

The most effective way to protect yourself and your loved ones with asthma is to quit all forms of smoking and vaping, while encouraging others to follow your lead.

More tips for quitting tobacco
  • The nicotine in cigarettes and vapes is toxic and highly addictive, making quitting hard. But quitting is possible with evidence-based treatment, such as counseling paired with medications. Talk to your health care provider.
  • Visit or call 1-800-QUIT-NOW for FREE, customized quit support that works! Get nicotine replacement patches, gum and lozenges delivered right to your home at no cost. You may even qualify for cash value rewards - up to $250 - for trying to quit smoking, vaping or other tobacco use. 


2. Don’t smoke in or close to your home.

Have a designated smoking area outdoors where people can smoke or vape. Make sure it is away from the home’s entry area and any common areas in which your family hangs out or plays.

More tips for creating a smoke-free home
  • Place a sealed trash bin in the designated smoking area to collect any cigarette butts or other smoke-related waste.
  • Change and store clothes, coats and hats that have been worn when smoking to keep them away from family members and from other items in the home. Ask visitors who smoke to leave their coats and other belongings in the car or outside.
  • If you are looking for a new place to live, such as a condo or an apartment, ask about its smoke- and vape-free policy. Many multi-united housing buildings have become smoke- and vape-free, which offer more protection from exposure.


3. Scents and fragrances only make smoke worse.

Scented candles, air purifiers and air fresheners can be just as risky for people with asthma as smoke— they can trigger asthma, stick to the lungs, and none remove smoke or clear the toxins, they just add another trigger into the air.

More tips on avoiding scented products
  • Never use scented candles, air fresheners or air purifiers. In addition to often having toxic ingredients, when combined with tobacco smoke, they can create dangerous combinations for everyone, especially people with asthma.
  • Avoid using any personal or home products to mask the smell of smoke, including cleaning products, room sprays, perfumes, scented candles, and toiletries.


​​​​​​4. Cars should always be 100% smoke free.

Avoiding secondhand smoke and vape emissions is nearly impossible when inside a car, even if the windows are down. This is true for humans and pets.

More tips for creating a smoke-free car
  • Remind all passengers that your car is a smoke- and vape-free zone. In fact, it’s illegal to smoke or vape in your car with a child aged 7 or younger.
  • If you have any ashtray, fill it with spare change or gum to resist the urge to smoke.
  • Store cigarettes and vaping devices in the trunk while on the road and ask the same of your passengers.
  • Smoke reduces the resale value of the car.

Vermonters, Take the Smoke-Free Pledge!

Vermonters who smoke or vape or businesses that support maintaining a smoke- and vape-free environment can take the Smoke-Free Pledge to demonstrate their commitment to a smoke-free Vermont.

So, what are you waiting for?  Take the Pledge

Frequently asked questions about asthma

What is Asthma and Who Has It?

Asthma is a chronic (long-term) disease in which the lungs become inflamed and airways narrow and react to "triggers”. Asthma can impact anyone.

What Causes Asthma, or an Asthma Attack?

It is not clearly known why or how people develop asthma. Research suggests that a combination of family genes and environmental exposures produce asthma.

Asthma can begin in early childhood or may first appear later in life. Not all childhood asthma continues into adulthood.

Family history of asthma, respiratory infections in young children, exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy and the first years of life, occupational exposures, house dust mites, air pollution, or cockroach droppings are a few of the things that may lead to asthma. An asthma “trigger” is anything that inflames your airways and flares your symptoms—like tobacco smoke, dust, viral infections, cold weather, pet dander, pests (like cockroaches and mice), pollen and mold and strong fumes.

There are many kinds of triggers, and triggers may be different for different people. Pet dander, tobacco smoke, air pollution, pollens, mold, mildew and dust are common triggers. When the lungs become irritated, the airways swell and mucus builds up, causing shortness of breath, coughing, wheezing, chest pain or tightness, tiredness or a combination of these symptoms.

What should you do if you think you or a loved one has asthma?

  • See your health care provider as soon as possible and talk with them about your symptoms.

  • Reduce exposure to common triggers like dust, mold, and pet hair.

  • Monitor your or your loved one’s symptoms closely. If their symptoms become severe, see a doctor.

Additional tips for controlling asthma
  • Go over your Asthma Action Plan with your provider each year and any time you get a new medicine.

  • Know how to properly use your inhaler and spacer. If you have a metered dose inhaler, the Asthma Action plan includes tips that may help you use it correctly. Be sure to ask your health care provider to go over the instructions for your unique inhaler and spacer.

  • Remind yourself to take your long-term medicines. You can add reminders on your calendar, email or phone or leave notes in places you see every day (like next to your toothbrush or coffee pot).

  • Keep your Asthma Action Plan—and your rescue medicines—with you at all times.

  • Keep track of how much medicine is left in your inhaler to make sure you order refills before running out.

More resources

State Resources

Asthma Resources for Older Vermonters

Asthma Resources for Parents and Children

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