Lead Hazards and Lead Poisoning

Lead poisoning is a serious but preventable health problem. Lead is a highly toxic metal that has been commonly used in many household, industrial and automobile products—such as paint, solder, batteries, brass, car radiators, bullets, pottery, etc. Too much lead in the body, or lead poisoning, can cause serious and permanent health problems. Children and pregnant women are at special risk.

The major source of lead poisoning in Vermont children is lead dust from chipping or peeling lead-based paint, but there are many other lead hazards. Lead poisoning can be prevented when you know what danger signs and hazards to look for in your home or in other places.

Lead poisoning prevention guidance for parents
Lead poisoning prevention guidance for health care providers

Lead-Based Paint in Housing Built Before 1978

Dust from lead-based paint is the major source of lead poisoning among children. In 1978, lead was banned from house paint by the Consumer Product Safety Commission. About 70% of Vermont homes were built before 1978 and likely contain lead-based paint. Over time, lead-based paint on surfaces crumbles into invisible dust, especially from opening and closing doors and windows. Even if the home has been repainted since 1978, the opening and closing of doors and windows can release lead dust from the original lead-based paint.

Young children are commonly exposed to lead by swallowing it. Lead dust clings to hands, toys and other objects that children put in their mouth. Children may eat, chew or suck on lead-painted objects such as windowsills, toys or furniture.

Children, pregnant women and adults can be exposed to lead during renovation projects or whenever lead-based paint is improperly sanded, scraped or burned. There are two main ways lead exposure can occur from these activities. One is from breathing in lead dust. The other is from swallowing lead dust if it gets on a person's hands and then in their mouth. This usually happens when eating, drinking or smoking, or from hand-to-mouth behavior in children.

Unsafe work practices that disturb lead-based paint will create lead hazards (see Section 2.2.28). Creation of lead hazards in any kind of building or structure will result in compliance and enforcement proceedings and may cause a lead cleanup project that will require you to hire a Vermont-licensed lead abatement contractor.

Do you need financial or technical help? The Vermont Housing & Conservation Board’s Lead-Based Paint Program offers help to homeowners and landlords (based on income) to lower the risk of lead poisoning from lead-based paint hazards. Call 802-828-5064 or 800-290-0527 or email leaduser@vhcb.org. If you live in Burlington or Winooski, the Burlington Lead Program has similar help available. Call 802-865-LEAD (5323).

Protect yourself and your family during home renovation projects
Find out how the Vermont Lead Law affects you
Learn what to to if your home has lead-based paint
Test your home for lead dust

Lead-Safe Cleaning

Swallowing lead dust that is on hands, toys or other objects is the most common way that children are exposed to lead. Keeping your home free of lead dust can help prevent lead poisoning.

Practice lead-safe cleaning

Lead in Drinking Water

Lead can get into drinking water from old lead pipes, plumbing fixtures or solder. Always run the water until it is as cold as it can get to use for cooking, drinking and making baby formula. Consider replacing lead pipes or old plumbing fixtures.

Learn more about lead in drinking water
Test your water for lead

Lead in Soil

Soil alongside older homes may be contaminated with lead from lead-based paint flaking off the house. Soil near roadways or driveways also may be contaminated with lead from car exhaust when leaded gasoline was used. Small amounts of lead may occur naturally in soil. And some lead contamination comes from industrial sources like lead battery manufacturing plants or brass foundries.

Lead-contaminated soil can be brought into your home on shoes. It is also very easy for a child to swallow contaminated soil while playing outside. To prevent lead poisoning, leave your shoes at the door and don't let children play in bare soil.

Test your soil for lead

Lead on the Job

Adults who work jobs that involve lead—such as painting, plumbing, metal production, building renovation, demolition, bridge work or manufacturing—are at risk of lead poisoning. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and Vermont OSHA have more information on occupational exposure to lead. Workers can also bring lead home on shoes and work clothes, which places family members at risk of coming in contact with lead.

Prevent take-home lead exposure
Learn about lead and your job
Find out about your risk for lead exposure while on the job and how to lower it

Lead in Hobbies and Crafts

Many common hobbies and crafts use materials containing lead—such as car parts, stained glass, jewelry, pottery glazes, artists paints, fishing sinkers, bullets and old maple sugaring equipment.

Protect your family from materials containing lead

Lead in Products and Imported Goods

Lead has been banned from house paint and lead content has been limited in children's products, but it still can be found in many common consumer and household products and in imported goods. Some examples include:

  • Children's toys and toy jewelry
  • Keys and keychains
  • Inks and dyes used in fabrics and packaging
  • Enamel bath tubs and sinks
  • Imported vinyl miniblinds
  • Glazed pottery, especially from China and Mexico
  • Folk remedies and medicine (e.g. Gaw Mo Dah)
  • Imported cosmetics (e.g. Kohl, Surma, Thanakha and Kajal)
  • Candy from Mexico
  • Imported food cans

Search for recalled products containing lead

Lead Information for Refugees and New Americans

You and your children may have come in contact with lead before coming to the United States. Lead is found in common products—such as amulets, trinkets, pottery and candy. It can also be in cosmetics like Thanakha, Surma, Kajal and Kohl, and in traditional remedies like Gaw Mo Dah. If you brought these items into the United States or receive them from friends or family, you can ask the Health Department if they are safe.

The Health Department recommends every child between six months and 16 years old get tested for lead when coming to the United States. One more test should be done three to six months later. In addition, children need to be tested for lead at ages 1 and 2. Your health care provider can test you or your family for lead or can tell you where to get one.

See translated lead poisoning prevention fact sheets
Watch translated lead poisoning prevention videos

Lead in Vintage, Antique and Salvaged Items

Lead has been commonly used in many older household items and consumer goods—such as paint, furniture, jewelry, glassware and dishes, leaded crystal, brass, pewter, ceramics, tools, toys and other items.

Even in newer homes, Vermonters can be exposed to lead when they install salvaged building materials—such as doors, windows, sinks, bathtubs and plumbing fixtures. If you are unsure about the presence of lead, assume all vintage, antique and salvaged items contain lead. To live safely with older items, you should be aware of the health effects of lead and how to prevent lead exposure.

Live safely with vintage, antique and salvaged building materials

How to Do a Home Lead Dust Test

You can use a simple kit to find out if you have lead dust in your home. You can buy kits online or at a hardware store, but make sure your kit has instructions for sending samples to a lab. Lead tests that give immediate results are less accurate. Watch this video to learn how to do a lead dust test in your home.