Infectious Disease Reporting

Vermont’s list of reportable diseases and the time frames in which they are required to be reported to the Health Department are specified in Vermont law (Reportable and Communicable Disease Rule). The Vermont Department of Health depends on reports of diseases and conditions of public health concern to protect the health of Vermont residents. Timely reporting ensures that cases of communicable disease can be investigated quickly so steps can be taken to prevent the spread of the disease. Both laboratory confirmed and clinical diagnoses are reportable within 24 hours. Immediate reporting is essential for several conditions that require prompt action by public health practitioners and for diseases that might indicate a bioterrorism incident.

Reportable and Communicable Disease Rule

How are disease or laboratory findings reported?

Health care providers

To report a suspected or confirmed case of disease, contact the Infectious Disease Epidemiology Program at 802-863-7240 or 800-640-4374 (within Vermont only) from 7:45 a.m. through 4:30 p.m. on business days. An epidemiologist is available 24/7 for diseases that require prompt public health follow-up.

Laboratories

Laboratories can report results electronically or on paper. Electronic reporting using HL7 messages is part of public health Meaningful Use. See the Electronic Laboratory Reporting HL7 2.5.1 Implementation Guide for more information. Laboratories that are not ready to report electronically can report using a weekly lab report form that is mailed or faxed to the Infectious Disease Epidemiology Program. An epidemiologist is available 24/7 at 802-863-7240 or 800-640-4374 (within Vermont only) for diseases that require prompt public health follow-up.

Specimens or isolates of certain organisms must be sent to the Health Department Laboratory. Contact the Health Department Laboratory at 802-338-4724 or 800-660-9997 (within Vermont only) for information about how to submit cultures and specimens.

What diseases are reportable?

To Report:

Call the Infectious Disease Program at 802-863-7240 or 1-800-640-4374 (VT only) Reporting, consultation and support are available 24/7.

Disease Reporting Timeline
Anaplasmosis within 24 hours
Animal Bites within 24 hours
AIDS within 24 hours
Anthrax immediately
Arboviral illness within 24 hours
Babesiosis within 24 hours
Blood lead levels within 24 hours
Borrelia miyamotoi infection within 24 hours
Botulism immediately
Brucellosis immediately
Campylobacteriosis within 24 hours
Candida auris within 24 hours
Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB), including susceptibility results within 24 hours
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), including susceptibility results within 24 hours
Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA), including susceptibility results within 24 hours
Chlamydia trachomatis infection within 24 hours
Cholera immediately
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease/transmissible spongiform encephalopathies within 24 hours
Cryptosporidiosis within 24 hours
Cyclosporiasis within 24 hours
Dengue within 24 hours
Diphtheria immediately
Eastern equine encephalitis illness within 24 hours
Ehrlichiosis within 24 hours
Glanders immediately
Gonorrhea within 24 hours
Guillain-Barré Syndrome within 24 hours
Haemophilus influenzae disease, invasive immediately
Hantavirus disease within 24 hours
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) within 24 hours
Hepatitis A immediately
Hepatitis B within 24 hours
Hepatitis C within 24 hours
Hepatitis E within 24 hours
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) within 24 hours
Influenza, pediatric influenza-related deaths within 24 hours
Individual cases of influenza only if due to a novel strain of Influenza A immediately
Pediatric influenza-related deaths within 24 hours
Institutional outbreaks* within 24 hours
Jamestown Canyon virus disease within 24 hours
Legionellosis within 24 hours
Leptospirosis within 24 hours
Listeriosis within 24 hours
Lyme disease within 24 hours
Malaria within 24 hours
Measles (Rubeola) immediately
Melioidosis immediately
Meningitis, bacterial within 24 hours
Meningococcal disease immediately
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) immediately
Mumps within 24 hours
Pertussis (whooping cough) within 24 hours
Plague immediately
Poliovirus infection, including poliomyelitis immediately
Powassan virus disease within 24 hours
Psittacosis within 24 hours
Q Fever within 24 hours
Rabies, animal cases within 24 hours
Rabies, human immediately
Rabies post exposure treatment in humans (irrespective of evidence of rabies) within 24 hours
Reye syndrome within 24 hours
Spotted fever rickettsiosis within 24 hours
Rubella (German Measles) immediately
Rubella, congenital rubella syndrome within 24 hours
Salmonellosis within 24 hours
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) immediately
Shiga toxin-producing E.coli (STEC) within 24 hours
Shigellosis within 24 hours
Smallpox (variola) immediately
Streptococcal disease, Group A, invasive within 24 hours
Streptococcal disease, Group B invasive (infants less than one month of age) within 24 hours
Streptococcus pneumoniae disease, invasive within 24 hours
Syphilis within 24 hours
Tetanus within 24 hours
Toxic shock syndrome within 24 hours
Trichinosis within 24 hours
Tuberculosis infection, latent within 24 hours
Tuberculosis disease within 24 hours
Tularemia immediately
Typhoid fever immediately
Vaccinia (disease or adverse event) within 24 hours
Varicella (chicken pox only) within 24 hours
Viral hemorrhagic fever immediately
Vibriosis within 24 hours
West Nile virus illness within 24 hours
Yellow fever within 24 hours
Yersiniosis within 24 hours
Zika virus infection within 24 hours

Download a PDF of the Reportable Disease list.

* Examples of institutions include long-term care facility, school, child care facility, correctional facility, shelter, camp, hospital, and day care centers.

What laboratory findings are reportable?

To Report:

Laboratory findings should be reported via electronic laboratory reporting or using a paper-based report form. For immediately reportable findings, call the Infectious Disease Program at 802-863-7240 or 1-800-640-4374 (VT only), available 24/7.

Disease Reporting Timeline
Anaplasma phagocytophilum within 24 hours
Arboviruses within 24 hours
Babesia microti within 24 hours
Bacillus anthracis immediately
Blood lead levels (all results, including undetectable) within 24 hours
Bordetella pertussis within 24 hours
Borrelia burgdorferi within 24 hours
Borrelia mayonii within 24 hours
Borrelia miyamotoi within 24 hours
Brucella species immediately
Burkholderia mallei immediately
Burkholderia pseudomallei immediately
Campylobacter species within 24 hours
Candida auris within 24 hours
Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB), including susceptibility results within 24 hours
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), including susceptibility results within 24 hours
Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA), including susceptibility results within 24 hours
CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts and percentages (all results) within 24 hours
Chlamydia psittaci within 24 hours
Chlamydia trachomatis within 24 hours
Clostridium botulinum immediately
Clostridium tetani within 24 hours
Corynebacterium diphtheriae immediately
Coxiella burnetii within 24 hours
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease/transmissible spongiform encephalopathies within 24 hours
Cryptosporidium species within 24 hours
CSF cultures (all positive findings) within 24 hours
Cyclospora cayetanensis within 24 hours
Dengue virus within 24 hours
Eastern equine encephalitis virus within 24 hours
Ehrlichia species within 24 hours
Francisella tularensis immediately
Haemophilus influenzae, isolated from a normally sterile site within 24 hours
Hantavirus within 24 hours
Hemorrhagic fever viruses immediately
Hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV IgM) within 24 hours
Hepatitis B virus (HBsAg, anti-HBcIgM, HBeAg, HBV DNA) within 24 hours
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) within 24 hours
Hepatitis E virus (IgM anti-HEV) within 24 hours
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): Includes the following:
HIV viral load measurement (including non-detectable results)
All HIV subtype and HIV nucleotide sequence data from antiretroviral drug resistance testing
within 24 hours
Jamestown Canyon virus within 24 hours
Legionella species within 24 hours
Leptospira species within 24 hours
Listeria monocytogenes within 24 hours
Measles virus immediately
MERS CoV immediately
Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (including positive interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) test results within 24 hours
Mumps virus within 24 hours
Neisseria gonorrhoeae within 24 hours
Neisseria meningitidis, isolated from a normally sterile site immediately
Plasmodium species within 24 hours
Polio virus immediately
Powassan virus within 24 hours
Rabies virus immediately
Rickettsia species within 24 hours
Ricin toxin (from Ricinus communis (castor beans)) within 24 hours
Rubella virus within 24 hours
Salmonella species within 24 hours
SARS-CoV/SARS - associated virus immediately
Shigella species within 24 hours
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) immediately
Shiga toxin-producing E.coli (STEC) (including O157:H7) within 24 hours
Smallpox (variola) immediately
Streptococcus, Group A, isolated from a normally sterile site within 24 hours
Streptococcus, Group B, isolated from a normally sterile site (infants less than one month of age) within 24 hours
Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin resistant (VRSA) and vancomycin intermediate (VISA), including susceptibility results within 24 hours
Streptococcus pneumoniae, isolated from a normally sterile site, including susceptibility results within 24 hours
Treponema pallidum and all confirmatory tests for syphilis that result from an initial positive screening test, regardless of result (positive and negative) within 24 hours
Trichinella spiralis within 24 hours
Varicella virus within 24 hours
Vibrio species within 24 hours
West Nile virus within 24 hours
Yellow fever virus within 24 hours
Yersinia enterocolitica within 24 hours
Yersinia pestis immediately
Zika virus within 24 hours

Download a PDF of the Reportable Lab Findings list.

What diseases in animals are reportable?

To Report:

Contact the Infectious Disease Epidemiology Program at 802-863-7240 or 800-640-4374 (within Vermont only) from 7:45 a.m. through 4:30 p.m. on business days. An epidemiologist is available 24/7 for diseases that require prompt public health follow-up.

Disease Reporting Timeline
Anthrax within 24 hours
Arboviral: eastern equine encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, western equine encephalitis, West Nile virus within 24 hours
Avian Chlamydiosis (Psittacosis, Ornithosis) within 24 hours
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy within 24 hours
Brucellosis (Brucella species) within 24 hours
Glanders (Burkholderia mallei) within 24 hours
Hantavirus within 24 hours
Hendra virus within 24 hours
Highly pathogenic avian influenza within 24 hours
Melioidosis (Burkholderia pseudomallei) within 24 hours
Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex within 24 hours
Nipah virus within 24 hours
Plague (Yersinia pestis) within 24 hours
Q Fever (Coxiella burnetti) within 24 hours
Rabies within 24 hours
Ricin toxin (from Ricinus communis, i.e., castor beans) within 24 hours
Tularemia (Francisella tularensis) within 24 hours
Typhus fever (Rickettsia prowazekii) within 24 hours
Cryptosporidiosis within 24 hours

Download a PDF of the Reportable Animal Diseases List

Who must report?
  • Health care providers
  • Nurses
  • Infection preventionists
  • Physician assistants
  • Laboratory directors
  • Physicians
  • Nurse practitioners
  • School health officials
  • Administrators of long-term care and assisted living facilities
  • Veterinarians (for reportable animal diseases)